PCB Design Perfection Starts in the CAD Library – Part 8
Padstack creation is something every CAD tool will eventually have to incorporate because it expedites and optimizes CAD library construction. You can download the IPC-7351B Padstack Naming Convention here – AppNote 10833: IPC-7251 & 7351 Padstack Naming Convention or http://www.mentor.com/products/pcb-system-design/library-tools/lp-wizard/import-docs
The SMT Padstack is easy –
- Top Land
- Top Solder Mask
- Top Paste Mask
- Top Assembly
Part 7 of this blog explains the Land Calculation for SMT land patterns, so let’s discuss Plated Through-hole calculations in this segment.
The Through-hole (PTH) Padstack is complex –
- Drill Hole
- Top Assembly
- Top Solder Mask
- Top Land
- Inner Land
- Plane Thermal Relief
- Plane Anti-pad (Clearance)
- Bottom Land
- Bottom Solder Mask
- Bottom Assembly
Here is a picture of a through-hole padstack.
Once you calculate the hole size, the minimum annular ring is 0.05 mm.
So the Minimum Annular Ring X 2 + Minimum Fabrication Allowance + Maximum Lead + Hole Over Lead = Pad Diameter
The IPC-7251 Through-hole land patterns have the capability of accommodating all three performance classiﬁcations.
Producibility Levels: When appropriate this standard will provide three design producibility levels of features, tolerances, measurements, assembly, testing of completion or veriﬁcation of the manufacturing process that reﬂect progressive increases in sophistication of tooling, materials or processing and, therefore progressive increases in fabrication cost. These levels are:
Level A General Design Producibility – Preferred [Maximum land\lead to hole relationship]
Level B Moderate Design Producibility – Standard [Nominal land\lead to hole relationship]
Level C High Design Producibility – Reduced [Least land\lead to hole relationship]
The producibility levels are not to be interpreted as a design requirement, but a method of communicating the degree of difficulty of a feature between design and fabrication/assembly facilities. The use of one level for a speciﬁc feature does not mean that other features must be of the same level. Selection should always be based on the minimum need, while recognizing that the precision, performance, conductive pattern density, equipment, assembly and testing requirements determine the design producibility level. The numbers listed within the tables of IPC-7251 are to be used as a guide in determining what the level of producibility will be for any feature. The speciﬁc requirement for any feature that must be controlled on the end item shall be speciﬁed on the master drawing of the printed board or the printed board assembly drawing.
Download the IPC-7251 padstack charts here – AppNote 10835: IPC-7251 Padstack Charts
Density Level A: Maximum Land/Lead to Hole Relationship – The ‘maximum’ land pattern conditions have been developed to accommodate the most robust producability of the solder application method. The geometry furnished may provide a wider process window for solder processing. The level A land patterns are usually associated with low component density product applications.
Density Level B: Nominal Land/Lead to Hole Relationship – Products with a moderate level of component density may consider adapting the ‘median’ land pattern geometry. The median land patterns furnished for all device families will provide a robust solder attachment condition for most soldering processes and should provide a condition suitable for wave, dip, drag or reﬂow soldering.
Density Level C: Least Land/Lead to Hole Relationship – High component density typical of portable and hand-held product applications may consider the ‘minimum’ land pattern geometry variation. Selection of the minimum land pattern geometry may not be suitable for all product use categories.
IPC Performance Classifications: Three general end-product classes have been established to reﬂect progressive increases in sophistication, functional performance requirements and testing/inspection frequency. It should be recognized that there may be an overlap of equipment between classes.
The end product user has the responsibility for determining the ‘‘Use Category’’ or ‘‘Class’’ to which the product belongs. The contract between user and supplier shall specify the ‘‘Class’’ required and indicate any exceptions or additional requirements to the parameters, where appropriate.
Class 1 General Electronic Products – Includes consumer products, some computer and computer peripherals, and hardware suitable for applications where the major requirement is function of the completed assembly.
Class 2 Dedicated Service Electronic – Products Includes communications equipment, sophisticated business machines, and instruments where high performance and extended life is required, and for which uninterrupted service is desired but not mandatory. Typically the end-use environment would not cause failures.
Class 3 High Reliability Electronic Products – Includes all equipment where continued performance or performance-on-demand is mandatory. Equipment downtime cannot be tolerated, end-use environment may be uncommonly harsh, and the equipment must function when required, such as life support systems and other critical systems.
Posted December 2nd, 2010, by
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