Posts Tagged ‘Accellera’

11 September, 2014

From those just beginning to study electronic systems design to the practicing engineer, this is the time of the year when those taking their first steps to learn VHDL, Verilog/SystemVerilog join the academic “back to school” crowd and those who are using design & verification languages in practice are honing skills at industry events around the world.

A new academic year has started and the Mentor Higher Education Program (HEP) is well set to help students at more than 1200 colleges and universities secure access to the same commercial tools and technology used by industry.  It is a real win-win when students learn using the same tools they will use after graduating.  Early exposure and use means better skilled and productive engineers for employers.

The functional verification team at Mentor Graphics knows that many students would prefer to have a local copy of ModelSim on their personal computer to do their course work and smaller projects as they learn VHDL or Verilog.  To help facilitate that we make the ModelSim PE Student Edition available for download without charge.  More than 10,000 students use ModelSim PE Student Edition around the world now in addition to our commercial grade tools they can access in their university labs.

For the practicing engineer, the Verification Academy offers an online community of more than 25,000 design and verification engineers that exchange ideas on a wide variety issues across the numerous standards and methodologies.  If you are not a member of the Verification Academy, I recommend you join.  You will also find the Verification Academy at DAC for one-on-one discussions and even more recently Verification Academy Live daylong seminars which came to Austin and which will be in Santa Clara – as of the writing of this blog.  There is still time to register for the Santa Clara event and I invite you to attend.

As design and verification is global, Accellera realized that DVCon should explore the needs of the global design and verification engineer population as well.  For 2014, DVCon Europe and DVCon India were born from an already successful running SystemC User Group events.  These user-led conferences will be held so engineers in these areas can more easily come together to share experiences and knowledge to ultimately become more productive.

Students and practicing engineers alike can benefit from fee-free access to some of the popular IEEE EDA standards.   While I don’t think reading them alone is the ultimate way to educate yourself, they make great companions to daily design and verification activities.  Accellera has worked with the IEEE to place several EDA standards in the IEEE Standards Association’s “Get™” program.  Almost 16,000 copies of the SystemC standard (1666) and just about the same number of SystemVerilog standards (1800) have been downloaded as of the end of August 2014.  Have you download your free copies yet?

The chart below shows the distribution of nearly 45,000 downloads which have occurred since 2010.  Stay tuned for breaking news on some updates to the EDA standards in the Get program.  When updated, they will replace the versions available now.  So if you want to have the current versions and the ones to come out shortly, you better download your copies now.  If the electronic version is not sufficient for you, the IEEE continues to sell printed versions.

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From students to practicing engineers, the season of learning has started.  I encourage you to find your right venue or style of learning and connect with others to advance and improve your design and verification productivity.

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20 August, 2014

The ever popular Accellera Design & Verification Conference held annually in Silicon Valley is going global.  Accellera System Initiative has expanded many of its SystemC user group events to be more inclusive of other Accellera and IEEE standards.  In doing so, the local organizers of these events have moved to adopt the popular DVCon USA style to organize their events to include this large complement of standards.  If you want to attend, participate or contribute to the events, follow the links as shared below.

Mentor Graphics is excited to participate and sponsor these user-led events with a keynote address, technical paper presentations and educational tutorials.  We look forward to see you in September for DVCon India in Bangalore and in October for DVCon Europe in Munich.

DVCon Europe (14-15 October 2014 | Munich, Germany) will target the application of standardized languages, tools, and methodologies for the design and verification of electronic systems and integrated circuits. The two day event will feature tutorials on the first day and technical paper presentations and poster sessions on the second day.  The DVCon Europe program list the details of the conference.  It is collocated with the annual Forum on Design Languages (FDL), which runs from 14-16 October 2014 in case you want to extend your stay for an extra third day.

At DVCon Europe Mentor Graphics is collaborating with our industry peers and users on a tutorial titled Enabling Energy-Aware System Level Design with UPF-Based System Level Power Models. As power has become one of the major concerns in design equaling those of feature, function and performance, more advances are needed to address system power challenges.  The tutorial will explore the use of IEEE Std. 1801™ (UPF) and how design and verification flows can best use it.

Mentor Graphics will also sponsor a tutorial titled Creating Portable Tests with a Graph-Based Test Specification.  It will cover an overview of a graph-based test description language that raises the level of verification abstraction to address system level challenges. This technology is being used by many successful verification teams around the world today and it is the technology we have committed to help build a new standard upon in Accellera.

DVCon India (25-26 September 2014 | Bangalore, India) is the first year of the transition of the popular Indian SystemC User Group (ISCUG) meeting into an event that expands to cover topics that bring together all the stakeholder involved in design and verification of IP, SoC, ASIC, FPGA and system level solutions.   The event is over two days with common sessions in the morning for keynote addresses.  The attendees will then break into an ESL track and Design & Verification track for focused sessions.

Mentor Graphics will sponsor a tutorial session as well as host the keynote presentation by Mentor Graphics CEO, Dr. Walden C. Rhines.  Dr. Rhines will review recent Wilson Research Group study results on the ongoing convergence of SoC design practices towards a common methodology, independent of specify tools being use. In this keynote, Dr. Rhines identifies the common attributes of SoC methodology that are emerging, and will highlight specific capability enablers for the further optimization of SoC design verification.

Registration for both events is now open and I hope you have time in your calendar to make it there.  Both events will have an exhibition area where you can also catch up on recent updates to our products and discuss what you think should be added next.  The Mentor Graphics team looks forward to meeting you there!

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9 July, 2014

Accellera has announced the completion of a multi-year effort to update its latest edition of the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM).  In completing this effort, the UVM 1.2 Class Reference Document was approved as an Accellera standard and the UVM Working Group has supplied an accompanying open-source reference implementation.  Questa supports UVM 1.2.

In addition to the resources you can download from Accellera, additional information on UVM 1.2 can be found at the Verification AcademyHTML documentation can easily be found at the Verification Academy too.

If you are a user of UVM 1.1 and have not been part of the UVM 1.2 development effort, you should know your peers have been busy the past few years since the stabilization and completion of UVM 1.1 to drive global adoption of UVM and to add, enhance and extend UVM.  In UVM 1.2 Messaging is now object-oriented, Sequences can automatically raise and drop objects, the register layer can now control transaction order within bursts and numerous bugs in UVM 1.1 have been fixed to improve quality.

Backward Incompatibility

All these changes come with a cost to the current UVM 1.1 user community.  When Accellera announced UVM 1.2 availability, it also disclosed some of the new features introduce backward incompatibility.  To reduce those issues, Accellera is making release notes and a one way conversion script part of the UVM 1.2 kit to ease the migration path forward.

If you follow the Verification Academy Cookbook rules, you will probably not see any impact from the backward compatibility issues.  And if you control your total verification environment, you will probably find it simpler to migrate forward as well.  Those who depend on outside resources will need to make sure those resources (like Verification IP) migrate forward to UVM 1.2 so you can migrate forward to UVM 1.2.  Mixing UVM 1.1 and UVM 1.2 was not considered by the Accellera UVM Working Group and is fraught with unknown issues.  We consider the migration an all or nothing proposition.  If you have multi-division, multi-company projects underway, it would be prudent to plan you move to UVM 1.2 with care at the conclusion of projects and when all suppliers and participating teams can migrate to UVM 1.2.

Public Review Period

Accellera seeks your input and feedback on UVM 1.2.  To support this, a public review forum on the Accellera website has been established to allow users to catalog issues, ask questions and generally offer feedback to help improve UVM 1.2 quality.

The public review process will end on October 1, 2014.  We encourage users to take the time now to test UVM 1.2 in their own environments and share their feedback to expidite the migration to UVM 1.2.

Path to IEEE

Public feedback will be taken into account along with further Accellera member testing to update UVM 1.2 prior to a committed hand-off to the IEEE for further standardization there later this year.  As this path unfolds, I will share updates on the standardization effort in the IEEE.

Verification Academy DAC 2014 UVM 1.2 Presentation

You will find many resources around the world on UVM 1.2.  At DAC 2014, the Verification Academy booth sponsored a session on UVM 1.2 titled  “UVM: What’s New, What’s Next, and Why You Care.”  If you did not attend DAC, you can still download the presentation and watch a video replay of it if you are a Verification Academy “full access” member (free registration required; restrictions apply).

The presentation by Tom Fitzpatrick goes into detail on the UVM 1.2 topic.  Importantly in Tom’s presentation is a discussion about what you should care about today.  You may find that software is a big issue and that his thesis challenges one to ask if UVM 1.2 is stuck in the past rather than addressing what should be addressed next.  I invite you to download the presentation and watch the video and share with me your thoughts. What do you think?

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25 April, 2014

DVCon 2014 Conference Proceedings Published

2014DVCon_logoWith record attendance announced for DVCon 2014, one might wonder if there is really a need to put some of the “Accellera Day” tutorial videos online.  With more than 1,000 professionals attending in some capacity, it would be easy to conclude that everyone that needs to know about UVM and the developments on the updated version to it, probably know.  Looking at just the LinkedIn design and verification forums one will realize there are 10’s of thousands who would have benefited if they had attended DVCon.  Thus, sharing this information more broadly is in order.

UVM Tutorial Video

UVM – What’s Now and What’s Next” is the tittle of the DVCon 2014 tutorial on UVM.  It covered use cases and pragmatic topics of the current UVM 1.1 standard as well as advanced topics for the next update, UVM 1.2.  The presenters covered sequence creation, register layer use, TLM-based communication, test execution, run-time phases and messaging enhancements.

The tutorial was split into five separate sections delivered by five speakers as follows:

  • Working Group Update: Adam Sherer, Accellera (7 min.)
  • Overview and Library Concepts: John Aynsley, Doulos (36 min.)
  • Stimulus Generation: Shawn Honess, Synopsys (21 min.)
  • UVM Register Layer: Tom Fitzpatrick, Mentor Graphics (36 min.)
  • UVM 1.2 Introduction: Uwe Simm, Cadence Design Systems (25 min.)

You can find out more information about the online tutorial videos hereRegistration is required, but there is no charge for access.  Once you have registered, you will get links to each of the five sections.  You can stream them or download them for offline access as you wish.  They are suitable for viewing on your computer or mobile devices.

DVCon 2014 Proceedings

DVCon 2014 was a full conference; it was more than just the the Accellera Day UVM Tutorial.  And in keeping with DVCon tradition, the conference proceedings are made available to all several months after the conference without charge.  If you visit the DVCon history area, you will find the 2014 proceedings have been published.  What I like about the DVCon proceedings it not only are the papers published, but the slides that were presented at the conference will often accompany the paper.

As an example, if you were interested in the DVCon 2014 Best Oral Presentation paper and presentation (Kelly D. Larson from NVIDIA on , “Determining Test Quality through Dynamic Runtime Monitoring of SystemVerilog Assertions” by the way), you will now find both the paper and presentation available online here.

For all those who did not make it to DVCon 2014, or who were there and could not see everything, the proceedings are now online and the first of the Accellera Day tutorials videos is published. Accellera is busy readying its other tutorial videos.  I’ll share information on their availability as they appear in the weeks and months ahead.

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10 April, 2014

Its always fun to take the wraps off of solutions we have been hard at work developing.  The global team of Mentor Graphics engineers have spent considerable time and energy to bring the next level of SoC design and verification productivity to what seems to be a never ending response to Moore’s Law.  As silicon feature sizes get smaller, design sizes get larger and the verification problem mushrooms.  But you know that.  These changes are the constants that drive the need for continued innovation.  Our next level of innovation for design verification is embodied in the Mentor Enterprise Verification Platform (EVP) which we recently announced.

Gary Smith recently published Keeping Up with the Emulation Market, and lays out the fact that verification platforms are unifying with emulation now a pivotal element, not just for microprocessor design success, but for Multi-Platform Based SoC design success as well.  The need to bring software debug into the loop with early hardware concepts is a verification challenge that must be supported as well.  Pradeep Chakraborty reported on the point made by Anil Gupta of Applied Micro at the UVM 1.2 Day in Bangalore where Anil implored “Think about the block, the subsystem and the top.”  The point made was software is often overlooked or under tested prior to committing to hardware implementation implying that our focus on UVM leaves us to verify no higher than where UVM takes us – and that is not the “top” of the SoC that mandates software be part of the verification plan.

Path to Success

With the Mentor EVP, we do address these issues.  We bring simulation and emulation together in a unified platform.  Software debug on conceptual hardware is supported to address verification at the “top.”  And even as Gary’s report concludes with a wonder about how easy access to emulation will be supported for the masses.  That too is solved in the Mentor EVP using VirtuaLAB that can be hosted in data centers along with the emulator vs. complex, one-off lab setups that lock an emulator to a design and lock out your global team of software developers from collaborating.  The Mentor EVP moves to emulation for the masses in a 24×7 world.

With big designs comes big data and complex debug tasks.  These complex debug tasks are all easily handled by the new Mentor Visualizer Debug Environment that has native UVM and SystemVerilog class-based debug capabilities and low-power UPF debug support to easily pinpoint design errors. All of this works in both interactive and post-simulation modes for simulation and emulation.  To keep the software team productive, and get to SoC signoff sooner, the innovative and new Veloce OS3 global emulation resourcing technology moves software debug think-time offline to Mentor’s Codelink software debug tool.

And there’s more!  But I’ll leave that for you to discover.  When you have time, visit us here, to learn more about the Mentor Enterprise Verification Platform.

Path to Standards

As the move to support Multi-Platform Based SoC evolves, so do the standards that underpin it.  And as I’ve reported on the comments of others in this blog – and the understanding from our experience that UVM can only go so far in Multi-Platform Based SoC verification – we concluded the time is right for the industry to explore the need for new standards.

We announced at DVCon 2014 an offer to take our graph-based test specification into an Accellera committee to help move beyond the limitations today’s standards have.  As our investment in tools, technology and platforms continues, we are keenly aware users want their design and verification data to be as portable as possible.  The Accellera user community members echoed the need to discuss portable stimulus that can take you up and down the design hierarchy from block, to subsystem, to system (“top”) and support the concurrent design of hardware and software.

In support of this, Accellera approved the formation of a Portable Stimulus Specification Proposed Working Group (PWG) to study the validity and need for a portable stimulus specification.  To that end, join me at the kickoff meeting to launch this activity on Wednesday, May 7, 2014 from 10:00am to 4:00pm Pacific time at the offices of Mentor Graphics in Fremont, CA USA.  If you would to attend, or you would  like time on the agenda to discuss technology that would advance the development of a Portable Stimulus Specification or discuss your objectives/requirements for this group, contact me and I will put you in touch with the meeting organizer.  Accellera PWG meetings are open to all and do not require Accellera membership status to attend.

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25 February, 2014

As DVCon expands, we at Mentor Graphics have grown our sponsored sessions as well.  Would you expect less?

In DVCon’s recent past, it was a tradition for the North American SystemC User Group (NASCUG) to sponsor a day of activity before the official start of the conference.  When OSCI merged with Accellera, the day before the official conference start grew to become Accellera Day with a broader set of meetings and activities covering many of Accellera’s standards.  This has all grown into a more official part of the DVCon program.  On Monday at DVCon – or as many still call it – Accellera Day – the tradeshow now joins in opening.  I covered this in detail in an earlier blog, so I won’t repeat myself now.

The pre-conference education and meet-up to discuss the latest in standards development is joined by an end of conference tutorial series that has expanded to allow four parallel sessions from three.  Instead of the one tutorial we at Mentor Graphics would otherwise sponsor at DVCon, we will offer two in this expanded series. Given the impact verification has on design it would seem right that more time be devoted to topics that address this.  One half-day tutorial is just to short to give the subject its due respect.

The two Mentor Graphics sponsored tutorials at DVCon, to be run in series, will devote a day to explore the application of current verification technology by us and users like you.  If you are already attending DVCon, you are making your tutorial selections now.  And for those who might only be interested to attend the tutorials themselves, DVCon offers a tutorials-only package ($145/Tutorial).  Mentor’s two tutorials are:

The first tutorial references “smooth sailing,” not because this will be a “no-pirate zone,” although I can tell you that since International Talk Like a Pirate Day is in late September, one won’t have to worry about a morning of pirate talk! [Interesting Fun Fact: Mentor Graphics’ headquarters in Wilsonville, OR USA is a short 50 miles (~80 km) north of the creators of this parotic holiday.]  The smooth sailing comes from the ability to easily use multiple engines from simulation, formal, emulation, FPGA prototyping to address your block to system-level verification needs.

The second tutorial is all about formal.  Or, in a more colloquial way to say it, we will answer the question: Whatsup with formal?  No, I doubt we will find more slang terms for formal technology being used and created in the tutorial.  But the tutorial will certainly look at more focused applications of formal technology.  As a pioneer in focused formal applications (like clock domain crossing) the creation of these focused formal applications has greatly simplified use and expanded technology access to verification teams with RTL design checks, X-state verification, and more joining the list.  Maybe we should ask Whatsapp with formal! But wait!  That slang question is already taken – and Facebook affirmed ownership with a $19B purchase of it recently.  Oh well, I lament.  Join me at this tutorial and we can explore something suitable and not yet taken as a replacement.  I can’t think of a better way to close DVCon than to see if we can invent another $19B term (or app).

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23 February, 2014

UVM 1.2 Release is Imminent

As vice chair of DVCon 2014, I can share with you that the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) remains a topic of great interest.  It sets the pace for tutorials and given the pending release by Accellera, learning what is new in UVM 1.2 is a compelling reason to attend DVCon.

The Accellera Day tutorial series on Monday at DVCon is popular with UVM being a session of great interest.  Aside from the “verification crisis” driving the need to explore this industry standard, the first major update is also a reason to generate this interest.  The UVM tutorial is meant for the novice and expert alike.  UVM experts can expect to walk away with more information on the new UVM 1.2 features and how they might plan to deploy them.

Naturally, I suggest you consider registering for the conference to attend this tutorial.  (There are still a few seats left; but you will need to hurry!)

UVM Working Group Discussions

As a member of the Accellera UVM Working Group, I have asked the team to consider adopting the SystemC development scheme of an open public review of a pending release of open source code.  While the merger of OSCI and Accellera to form Accellera Systems Initiative inherited the OSCI style of public review, Accellera has not fully embraced it for all its projects.

In a disclosure of a bit of insider conversation I had with the UVM WG this last week, I asked the group to confirm that we were going to bypass the “official” public review option and go to an internal 30-day review cycle only – then release to the public.  While the conclusion was to stay on the 30-day internal review path, the group also noted that one who may be familiar with Git might be able to locate the source code (and many have) and do testing.

Since the bleeding-edge users know they can access as it is being developed, why not share the Git commands for everyone to gain access?  So the group has done just this.  When last minute changes for Release Candidate 4 were put in place, the Git script to offer access for early review was shared publicly.  You can find can find this public message here, thanks to UVM WG member Adiel Khan (from Synopsys).

If you are a seasoned UVM user and are attending DVCon the week of March 3rd, I would encourage you to do some testing now so you can connect with the developers first hand.  And even if you are not attending DVCon but want to migrate to UVM 1.2, you might want to get an early start to determine what you might need to do to adopt this release.

If you are not going to attend the DVCon UVM tutorial and want a short update on what this version will offer, the UVM WG secretary, Adam Sherer (from Cadence), put together a brief slide set that he presented at the TVS DVClub event in September 2013 that you can download.  You may find it a useful companion to the download of the open source code.

Even if you are not attending DVCon, the adoption of UVM is globally substantial and it might be good to reflect on the need for broader testing.  In the first releases of UVM, this may not have been as important as few were using it and the number of tests limited to the main developers.  However, as its popularity has grown and adoption increased, it is probably a good idea for the Accellera UVM Working Group to consider the impact of a new release on teams actively using it now.  While the UVM WG drives to closure on its release candidate and the UVM 1.2 standard, you are offered the opportunity to give us feedback.  For those who have time, please do!

Mentor Commentary on Standards Development

Lastly, for those attending DVCon, check out our own Tom Fitzpatrick’s Wednesday morning paper – Of Camels and Committees: Standards Should Enable Innovation, Not Strangle It. His commentary on the development process may shed some additional light into how technology additions, changes and enhancements are judged for inclusion in updates to standards, like UVM.

Resources:
- UVM 1.2 New Feature Presentation (Sept 2013): Download Here (Free)
- UVM 1.2 Public Review Instructions (Feb 2014): Download Here (Free)
- Mentor Commentary at DVCon: Register Here ($)

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6 January, 2014

The UCIS Story

There is no secret as design sizes grow it is doubly burdensome for verification.  Two factors that are easy to measure is the time it takes to simulate a design and the other is the size of the dataset that contains the results of the verification runs. Simulation times are growing and the datasets are getting larger.  While time and attention is given to accelerated verification through emulation, or alternate verification methods, to reduce run times, less explored is the impact of larger datasets on verification closure.  How does one find bugs within datasets that are so large?  How can verification results from simulation, emulation, formal and more be brought together to help drive verification closure?  How can one link failures in verification back to requirements?

The Accellera standards organization took a multi-year journey to help address these issues and arrived at the creation of the Unified Coverage Interoperability Standard (UCIS).  You can get your free copy here if you would like to read and use it.  Mentor Graphics contributed a significant starting point to the standard and collaborated with major competitors and users to add to and extend from there.  But now that the standard is done, what does one do with it?

While that was a rhetorical question when the standard was done in 2012; today it begs an answer.

From my perspective there are two classes of users of UCIS.  The more immediate users are those who are building verification tools that must contend with design and verification complexity now.  With UCIS they have the initial underpinnings to add product features that will allow a level of data portability that was not present prior to the standard.  The second class of users are those who will use the UCIS Application Programming Interface (API) to build functions that will perform simple and complex tasks on these large datasets.  This last class of user that might exchange UCIS API code with each other has yet to materialize.  But the stage is set for them.

To highlight what the first class of UCIS adopters have been doing, DVClub in Europe will tackle to answer this question as on what one can do with UCIS on Monday, 13 January 2014.  Darron May, Product Manager at Mentor Graphics will speak for us on our application of the standard.  His session is titled Blending Metrics from Multiple Verification Engines to Improve Productivity.  You can find out more details about the DVClub event (speakers and presentation abstracts) and register here to attend in person or via remote access.  The event will be held 12:00-14:00 GMT and is free.

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19 September, 2013

It’s hard for me to believe that SystemVerilog 3.1 was released just over 10 years ago. The 3.1 version added Object-Oriented Programming features for testbench development to a language predominately used for RTL design synthesis. Making debug easier was one of the driving forces in unifying testbench and design features into a single language. The semantics for evaluating expressions and executing statements would be the same in the testbench and design. Setting breakpoints and stepping through the code would be seamless. That should have made it easier for either a verification or a design engineer to understand a complete verification environment. Or maybe it would enable either one to at least understand enough of the environment to isolate a particular problem.

Ten years later, I have yet to see that promise fulfilled. Most design engineers still debug their simulations the same way they debug in the lab: they look at waveforms. During simulation, they rarely look at the design source code, and certainly never look at the testbench code (unless it’s just basic pin wiggling like a waveform). Verification engineers are not much different. They rely on waveform debugging because that is what they were brought up on, and many do not even realize source-level debugging is available to them. However the test/testbench is more like a piece of software than a hardware description, and there are many things about a modern testbench that is difficult to display in a waveform (e.g. call stacks, local variables, and random constraints). And methodologies like the UVM add many layers of source-level complexity that most users do not have the time to wade through.

Next week I will be presenting as part of an Industry Special Session during the Forum on specification & Design Languages (FDL September 24-26,2013) that will discuss these issues and try to get more involvement from the academic and user communities to help resolve them. Was combining constructs from many languages into one a success? Can tools provide representations of source-level constructs in an easier graphical form? We hopefully will not need another decade.

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8 September, 2013

Schedules, respins, and bug classification

This blog is a continuation of a series of blogs that present the highlights from the 2012 Wilson Research Group Functional Verification Study (for a background on the study, click here).

In my previous blog (Part 11 click here), I focused on some of the 2012 Wilson Research Group findings related to formal verification, acceleration/emulation, and FPGA prototyping trends. In this blog, I present verification results findings in terms of schedules, respins, and classification of functional bugs.

We have seen in previous blogs that a significant amount of effort is being applied to functional verification. An important question the various studies have tried to answer is whether this increasing effort is paying off.

Schedules

Figure 1 presents the design completion time compared to the project’s original schedule. What is interesting is that we really have not seen a change in this trend in over five years. That is, 67 percent of all projects are behind schedule with respect to the original plan. One could argue that designs have increased in complexity in terms of gate counts, embedded processors, and lots of software between 2007 and 2012. Yet, achieving project schedules has not worsened.

Figure 1. Non-FPGA design completion time compared to the project’s original schedule

What’s interesting is that the FPGA designs follows this same trend, as shown in figure 2.

Figure 2. Non-FPGA vs. FPGA design completion time relative to the original plan

Respins

Other verification data points worth looking at relate to the number of spins required between the start of a project and final production. Figure 3 shows this industry trend all the way back to the 2004 Collett study. Again, even though designs have increased in complexity, the data suggest that projects are not getting any worse in terms of the number of spins before production. If anything, there appears to be a slight improvement recently in this trend in projects requiring three or more spins.

Figure 3. Number of spins required from start of project until production

Bug classification

Figure 4 shows various categories of flaws that are contributing to respins. Note that the sum is greater than 100% on this graph, which is because a respin can be triggered by multiple flaws. 

Figure 4. Number of spins required from start of project until production

Although logic and functional flaws remain the leading causes of respins, the data suggest that there has been some improvement in this area over the past eight years. Is this due to the increased amount of reuse that is occurring in the industry? Or is the industry maturing its verification processes? Or is something entirely different going on? This data point raises some interesting questions worth exploring.

Figure 5 examines root cause of functional bugs by various categories. The data suggest an improvement in logic errors over an eleven year period, and potentially, a worsening of problems related to changing specifications. Problems associated with changing, incorrect, and incomplete specifications is a common theme I often hear when visiting customers.

Figure 5. Root cause of functional flaws

In my next blog (click here), I plan to wrap up this series of blogs in what I call the Epilogue—which will discuss potential gotchas and cautions on interpreting certain aspects of the data and thoughts about how the data might be used constructively.

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