Posts Tagged ‘nasa’

31 October, 2014

NASA has increased its reliance on private, commercial space companies following the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttle program in 2011. Among NASA’s growing list of commercial partners is Orbital Sciences Corp. in Dulles, Virginia.

The Antares launch vehicle, from Orbital Sciences Corp., is the largest rocket produced by the company and the largest to be launched from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.

Orbital engineers first developed the Antares (originally called Taurus II) – under a $171 million NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Space Act Agreement (SAA) – to be an expendable launch system capable of launching payloads heavier than 5,000 kilograms (11,000 pounds) into low-Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, Antares is designed to launch Orbital’s Cygnus spacecraft to deliver cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) as part of NASA’s COTS and Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) programs.

The Antares rocket made its inaugural flight on 21 April 2013, and has successfully completed two resupply missions, ORB-1 and ORB-2, from the same facility – starting in January 2014 and bringing nearly 5,000 pounds of supplies and experiments to the ISS each trip. Under the company’s $1.9 billion Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract with NASA, Orbital Sciences Corp. will send approximately 20 metric tons of cargo to the ISS over the course of eight missions. (SpaceX, with headquarters in Hawthorne, Calif., won an even larger CRS contract for 12 missions.)

Orbital’s third resupply mission was unsuccessful, and teams are working to figure out what went wrong. Debris was scattered over an estimated one-mile radius from the site of the blast. NASA cautions the public not to collect any debris from the accident as it could be hazardous and instead to call the incident response team at 757-824-1295.

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30 October, 2014

NASA personnel have gotten really good at social media. In fact, NASA engineers, scientists, and officials have been taking to various social media and news outlets, generating a great deal of excitement over a night launch on the East Coast of the United States.

Military and aerospace (mil/aero) enthusiasts everywhere – this mil/aero geek included – watched with bated breath for what was to be an historic aerospace event: the first nighttime launch of the Antares rocket. The event also marked the first use of the commercial CASTOR 30XL upper-stage solid rocket motor developed and tested by ATK. What’s more: It was a commercial launch, from Virginia, that would have been visible from East Coast locales from New Hampshire to South Carolina.

NASA officials had supplied would-be sky gazers with a detailed map of the visible area, complete with time and elevation markers. Space.com also speculated that the event “could be a spectacularly bright sight for observers, weather permitting.”

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Orbital Sciences Corp. officials had successfully launched four of the company’s Antares rockets, between April 2013 and July 2014. The fifth Antares rocket and accompanying Cygnus cargo spacecraft lifted off from Launch Pad 0 of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport on Wallops Island, six miles off the Eastern shore of Virginia, at 6:22 p.m. on 28 October 2014. Mere seconds after lift-off, the Antares rocket suffered a catastrophic failure that destroyed it and everything onboard – the Cygnus spacecraft and hosted NASA payloads, including International Space Station (ISS) supplies and many young students’ research projects – the total value of the loss is estimated to be more than $200 million (U.S.)

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29 October, 2014

India solidified its place in the history books when late last month (September 2014) the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) and technology demonstrator successfully entered into orbit around the Red Planet.

The MOM achievement launched India into aerospace history as the first nation in Asia to reach Mars—joining the ranks with the European Space Agency (ESA), U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA), and the Soviet space program (now known as the Russian Federal Space Agency). What is even more impressive, however, is that this singular achievement also bestowed India with the designation of first nation in the world to successfully reach Mars on its first attempt.

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Both Japan and China have tried to reach Mars, but both missions failed. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Nozomi mission, launched in July 1998, failed to establish Mars orbit after more than five years in route and incurring a total cost of $189 million. At the same time, a Chinese satellite launched aboard the Russian Federal Space Agency’s Phobos-Grunt failed to leave Earth orbit after its launch in November 2011.

NASA’s successful Maven mission to Mars launched just 13 days after MOM, arrived three days earlier, and cost $671 million (U.S.). In comparison, India spent just $74 million—making it the most affordable transit to Martian orbit.

This military and aerospace (mil/aero) geek joins myriad others in congratulating India and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) for all their achievements in aerospace, including more than 70 launches for domestic Indian programs and foreign partners.

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28 October, 2014

The global aerospace community is buzzing with news of emerging markets making technological advances and historical achievements. Among the nations making headlines is India.

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) officials in Bangalore are racking up aerospace wins, which resulted in India being recognized as the first Asian nation to successfully send a satellite into orbit around Mars. India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) and technology demonstrator continues to make headlines.

MOM is one of the latest endeavors, and India’s contribution, to: learning more about Earth’s closest celestial neighbor, Mars. The MOM demonstrator entered into orbit around the Red Planet 298 days after launch—in late September 2014.

The MOM technology demonstrator generates power using solar panels; in fact, the solar panels effectively generate 840 watts of usable power, which is stored in the spacecraft’s bank of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.

MOM_India

The Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) handles MOM communications via a pair of 230-watt transponders coupled to an antenna array that consists of low-, mid-, and high-gain antennas. ISRO has partnered with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the South African National Space Agency to assist with telemetry, command and control, and tracking while the MOM space vehicle is not visible to the ISRO network. The IDSN is a system of large antennas and communications facilities in support of interplanetary spacecraft missions in India.

With this successful mission, India has established its place in history as the fourth nation to reach Mars orbit and, certainly more impressive, the first nation in the world to successfully reach Mars on its first attempt.

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30 September, 2014

NASA scientists finalized testing of the most complex rocket engine parts ever produced with 3D printers. Aerospace organizations are increasingly investigating the potential of additive manufacturing, using 3D printers to save time and money over traditional manufacturing processes.

The testing involved using the rocket engine parts to produce 20,000 pounds of thrust. A NASA spokesperson describes the test: “Designers created complex geometric flow patterns that allowed oxygen and hydrogen to swirl together before combusting at 1,400 pounds per square inch and temperatures up to 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit.”

NASA scientists credit additive manufacturing with delivering a wealth of benefits. “Having an in-house additive manufacturing capability allows us to look at test data, modify parts or the test stand based on the data, implement changes quickly, and get back to testing,” affirms Nicholas Cases, the NASA propulsion engineer responsible for leading the testing. “This speeds up the whole design, development, and testing process and allows us to try innovative designs with less risk and cost to projects.”

NASA officials are crediting additive manufacturing with helping engineers to design and produce small 3D printed parts quickly, to build and test a rocket injector with a unique design, to test faster and smarter, and to apply modifications to the test stand or the rocket component quickly.

3DPrintNASAParts

To date, Marshall Space Flight Center officials say, NASA engineers have tested complex injectors, rocket nozzles, and other components. The end goal is to reduce the manufacturing complexity, time, and cost of building and assembling future engines. “Additive manufacturing is a key technology for enhancing rocket designs and enabling missions into deep space,” NASA officials say.

This geek is in love with this technology! Additive manufacturing with help relieve our dependence on foreign launch platforms since the retirement of the much missed Space Shuttle program.

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30 September, 2014

SpaceX this month logged its fifth successful mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and had a hand in yet another historic first: delivering the first 3D printer in space.

SpaceX launched its fifth journey to the ISS and fourth official Commercial Resupply (CRS) mission to the orbiting lab early this week, on Sunday, 21 September 2014 from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

SpaceX CRS-4 is the fourth of at least 12 missions to the ISS that SpaceX will fly for NASA under the CRS contract. The SpaceX Dragon spacecraft will remain at the ISS for four weeks, returning to Earth in mid-October for a parachute-assisted splashdown off the coast of southern California.

“Dragon is the only operational spacecraft capable of returning a significant amount of supplies back to Earth, including experiments,” according to a SpaceX spokesperson. “Under the CRS contract, SpaceX has restored an American capability to deliver and return significant amounts of cargo, including live plants and animals, to and from the orbiting laboratory.”

Dragon delivered more than 5,000 pounds of supplies and payloads, including materials to support 255 science and research investigations during Expeditions 41 and 42.

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This cargo mission includes a number of firsts. For the first time, Dragon carried live mammals (20 rodents) in NASA’s Rodent Research Facility, developed at NASA’s Ames Research Center to study the long-term effects of microgravity on mammalian physiology. SpaceX’s Dragon also delivered the 3-D Printing In Zero-G Technology Demonstration, the first 3D printer ever in space.

This geek loves SpaceX and their passion, drive, and innovation. They are making out of this world research possible.

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29 September, 2014

The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25 engine powered NASA’s Space Shuttle and will power the upcoming Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a heavy-lift, exploration-class rocket currently under development to take humans beyond Earth orbit and Mars.

NASA engineers recently produced the most complex rocket engine parts in the agency’s history using additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. Three-dimensional printers are a popular choice today for producing digital prototypes in a wealth of industry verticals, including a variety of computer graphics (CG) market segments, such as visual effects (VFX) and game development.

NASA engineers are using 3D printing to output final parts and components, not just prototypes. Astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) will not only use 3D-printed parts, but also print parts and components as needed and on-demand with additive manufacturing; even so, NASA scientists needed to test 3D-printed parts thoroughly down here on Earth before deploying them in space.

3d print rocketdyne

“We wanted to go a step beyond just testing an injector and demonstrate how 3D printing could revolutionize rocket designs for increased system performance,” explains Chris Singer, director of the Engineering Directorate at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. “The parts performed exceptionally well during the tests,” he reveals.

NASA officials anticipate that additive manufacturing will save both time and money—a significant amount of each, in fact. Using traditional manufacturing methods, engineers would need to manufacture and then assemble 163 individual parts; conversely, with 3D printing technology, only two parts were required, enabling engineers “to build parts that enhance rocket engine performance and are less prone to failure,” NASA officials say.

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27 September, 2014

Late last month, engineers at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, completed testing the most complex rocket engine parts ever designed by the space agency and printed with additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing.

The highly complex part NASA engineers designed is a rocket engine injector, which is responsible for sending propellant into the engine, and which they crafted with design features that take advantage of 3D printing. As NASA officials describe the process, the intricate, digital design was loaded into the 3D printer’s computer. The 3D printer then built each part by outputting layers of metal powder and fusing the layers together with a laser in a process called selective laser melting.

By employing the additive manufacturing process, rocket designers were able to produce an injector with 40 individual spray elements. If manufactured traditionally, each individual spray element would need to be developed separately and then married with the core unit. Instead, the 3D printer enabled the engineers to save time and streamline the production process by printing the injector and all spray elements as a single component.

3D Rocketdyne RS25

The part was similar in size to injectors that power small rocket engines and similar in design to injectors for large engines, including the RS-25 engine from Aerojet Rocketdyne, with headquarters in Sacramento, California. The Rocketdyne RS-25 rocket engine, also referred to as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), burns cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. The SSME, having performed well on NASA’s Space Shuttle, is scheduled to be used on the much-anticipated Space Launch System (SLS), the Shuttle’s successor.

This geek is excited to see the amazing potential of this amazing technology being realized.

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29 June, 2014

NASA officials partnered with industry to launch the 3D Printing in Zero-G Experiment and Technology Demonstration, with the goal of validating the additive manufacturing capabilities in zero-gravity.

NASA scientists and Made In Space engineers at NASA Ames Research Park in California considered the International Space Station (ISS) to be the optimal place to initiate the journey of in-space manufacturing.

The Made In Space and NASA team envisions a future where space missions can be essentially self-sufficient and manufacture most of what they need in space, including consumables, common tools, replacements for lost or broken parts, and eventually even small, deployable satellites called CubeSats.

“A 3D printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal, or other material, building layer on top of layer to create three-dimensional objects,” explains Ken Cooper, B.A. in Mechanical Engineering, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama. “Testing a 3D printer using relatively low-temperature plastic feedstock on the International Space Station is the first step towards establishing an on-demand machine shop in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing.”

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“The 3D printing experiment with NASA is a step towards the future. The ability to 3D print parts and tools on-demand greatly increases the reliability and safety of space missions while also dropping the cost by orders of magnitude,” said Aaron Kemmer, chief executive officer of Made In Space, located at the NASA Ames Research Park in Mountain View, Calif. “The public has been hearing about what this 3D printing technology can do, but most people haven’t seen a genuine impact on their lives yet. Space is one of the key places where humanity will see the first impact of this incredible technology.”

The first printers at the ISS will begin by building test coupons, Kemmer describes, after which they will be used to output a broad range of parts, such as tools and science equipment.

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27 June, 2014

“Imagine an astronaut needing to make a life-or-death repair on the International Space Station. Rather than hoping that the necessary parts and tools are on the station already, what if the parts could be 3D printed when they needed them?” postulates Aaron Kemmer, chief executive officer of Made In Space, located at the NASA Ames Research Park in Mountain View, Calif.

All space missions today are completely dependent on Earth and the launch vehicles that send equipment to space. This fact is often considered a boon for broad range of aerospace vendors—including commercial space firms, prime contractors and subcontractors, and system- and component-level suppliers—but, at the same time, bad news for both taxpayers and awaiting astronauts in space. Moreover, the greater the distance a mission is from Earth and the longer its duration, the more difficult it is to resupply materials. Government and aerospace leaders are setting out to change all that.

mars misssion

“As NASA ventures further into space, whether redirecting an asteroid or sending humans to Mars, we’ll need transformative technology to reduce cargo weight and volume,” NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said during a recent tour of the agency’s Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif. “In the future, perhaps astronauts will be able to print the tools or components they need while in space.”

In the summer of 2013, officials at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and space manufacturing company Made In Space began preparations to enable a future where parts can be built on-demand in space. And so, the 3D Printing in Zero-G Experiment was born.

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